i've had surgery on both shoulders for torn labrums.
your recovery will depend on whether you have open surgery or arthroscopic surgery. you will recover very fast from arthroscopic. your recovery will be really slow from open surgery.
you will spend about 3 or 4 months in physical therapy after surgery, regaining your range and strength. they will be having you do really boring exercises with a thera-band; but these are the only exercises that are important to stabilize the muscles and ligaments around your shoulder socket. normal exercises like bench press, pushups, pullups, triceps and biceps are useless in preventing you from tearing your labrum in the future. it's ALL about the theraband exercises. do them three times a day every day.
you will be ready to ski hard eight months after your surgery.
after you've completed physical therapy, I absolutely recommend skiing with this brace for your shoulder:
if you wear a brace when you ski, it's highly unlikely you'll wreck your labrum again. if you don't wear the brace and ski aggressively, you're almost certain to sublux or dislocate your shoulder again. i'd bet money on it.
GOOD LUCK. do the thera-band exercises, and ski with a shoulder brace.