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Athletic tape works for me. It doesn't completely fix it or take away the pain, but its better than nothing in my opinion. Also, I've never done it, but maybe try superglue? That works on cuts and stuff so maybe it'll work to form a protective barrier kinda thing. But, I don't know. I've never used it for toes or this kind of issue.
Ingrown toenails will give you problems no matter how well your boots fit. Looks like you got it pretty bad. One thing the doc told me when I got a nicely infected one is to pack bits of cotton ball underneath there as they grow out to kind of direct their growth. Obviously clean it and change it everyday, etc.
Try skiing a day barefoot or wearing nylons. That will tell you if it's your socks. I was having cramping in my feet earlier this season. Had my boots blown out and got custom foot beds. Nothing was helping. The pain was so bad at the end of the day that I could barely speak. The dad of one of the kids on our team is a podiatrist. He was hanging with us one day and at lunch I was talking with him about it. I took off my socks during lunch and didn't cramp after that. I just didn't like how my feet felt like they were sticking to my foot beds, so I picked up some knee high nylons for $3 and have been skiing in those. No problems at all since I made the switch and it helps me get in touch with my feminine side.