I am not as familiar with Denver resorts but here is what I know.
there is one freeway or Highway heading west from Denver, I-70. Most of the main resorts are off this highway. There are some others a little farther north but I have never been to them so I won't talk about them.
1st is just 20 minutes west of Denver. It is a little ski hill called Echo Mountain. It is very small and the whole mountain is a terrain park. There are about 6-7 jumps and probably over 50 different rails. it is very close, cheap , and fun. If you just want to take a day and ski park this would be fun and easy. It is only $30USD a day and is just outside Evergreen.
Most of the other Colorado resorts are fairly similar in terrain. Once you head a little farther up the canyon you can turn off and drive to Winterpark. it is about 45 minutes from Denver. It is very fun, has some good terrain, they get good snow, and they have a pretty good park. There is nothing else there, just a ski hill, no litlle town or anything. I think Tickets here are about $60USD.
If you stay on I-70 you will come to a resort called Loveland. It is at the summit of the pass, I have never skied there so sorry I can't give you any advice sorry.
If you keep driving you come to the towns of Frisco, Silverthorne, Dillion and Breckenridge. These are all kind of grouped together. It is a nice little town. I have heard the night life is good but i can't confirm. Around here you have the resorts. Arapahoe Basin, Keystone, Copper Mountain, and Breckenridge. Keystone and Copper Mountain are very similar mountains and both have very fun terrain and both have very good parks. Both have small, medium and big parks so once you are done with one you can move up to the tougher one. They are big fun mountains and you sill not get bored there. I have never skied Breckenridge, but i have a shirt from there. I heard it is super nice and is similar to whistler. They always get good rankings on their park but I have never skied it. I think AB, Keystone, and Copper are all about $70 USD per day and Breckenridge is closer to $85 a day.
Steamboat Springs is not close to there at all but if you want to know about it just write me and let me know.
If you are not going to to buy a season pass then you can check out www.craigslist.com. it is website where people sell stuff and you can often find discounted passes for sale.
If you go to www.skicolorado.com you can find a season pass to Copper Mountain and Winter Park for about $400. This is an amazing deal!!!!!!!!!! I think you could ski these 2 places and not get bored at all. If i were you I would buy this pass if i wa planning on skiing over 10 times on Colorado.
This is all I really know about Denver skiing. Denver does have a more happening Nightlife than SLC for sure. More places to go and things to do. If you drink then Denver is better than SLC, it is a little harder to get alcohol in Utah.
If you have any other questions let me know.