I'm not an expert on the subject, but I did take a basic backcountry safety course that I think is a prerequisite or preliminary training to an avalanche course.
I know you have to take a course that's at least a week long and has a fee (I have no idea how much), and I think there are different levels. The course includes material about identifying avalanche danger based on the snowpack, being able to identify the different kinds of snow crystals in the pack, and avalanche paths and safer/dangerous areas on a slope, snowpits and stability tests, and how to find a person buried by an avalanche using transceivers, probes and shovels, and probably without any of the gear as well. There would also be much more in-depth information and you would probably need ski patrol training as well, and training on how to use the blasting equipment.
I'm sure there's a similar association in the US.
If you have the opportunity to take the course, you definitely should, because the more people educated about avalanches the better, plus it would be a pretty cool job like you say, but a lot of responsibility.
Don't mind me.