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I have bowfished quite a bit. It is a lot of fun! Essentially any bow will work, but you will need a specialty bowfishing arrow as well as reel. Muzzy and AMS are pretty much the leaders in bowfishing gear, so be sure to check them both out. A recurve can be nice, but a compound will work as well. I used an Oneida compound.
Make certain to identify the species you are considering shooting. From your description I imagine you are describing carp, or possibly suckers. It is illegal to shoot gamefish such as bass, trout, sunfish, walleye, etc. Feel free to ask me any questions.