I shoot weddings here and there. I actually have one coming up next weekend!
Anyways. Weddings are hard as fuck. I would say one of the hardest types of photography there is. There are no re-dos, so it has to be spot on perfect the first time. That being said, the number one most important thing about wedding photography is..
ALWAYS HAVE BACKUPS! You must have backups of every single thing you own. Second (or maybe even third) camera body, multiple flashes, cards out your asshole, etc. You get my drift? If your gear craps out on you, you better be ready for it. And it will happen to you, it happens to everyone. Another small tip that I really find useful is to shoot on smaller cards. If you shoot a quarter of the wedding on a 16g card and that card corrupts, you're fucked. Yeah it can be annoying to be switching cards all the time but it ensures that you will have shots of everything even if one does corrupt. Once you start doing this, you'll get used to it really quick.
Next thing is about lighting. You're going to be shooting in some absolutely crazy lighting situations, and it can change within minutes. If you don't have flashes, get some. And once you get them, learn how to bounce them effectively. And if you don't want to learn how to bounce them (and you should), get a Gary Phong Light Sphere. Hahah. Seriously though, that thing is magical, especially for receptions. If you don't want to work with flashes, and a lot of wedding photog's don't, then pick yourself up a 5dmkII and a 1.2 lens. A lot of churches won't let you shoot the ceremony with flash (if you get to shoot the ceremony at all), and most churches are dark as fuck. You gotta be ready to compensate for that, and really the only way is to jack up that ISO and open your aperture all the way. And ISO 3200+ is going to look like absolute shit on really anything but a 5dmkII.
Learn posing. It is one of the most crucial things you will need to know when shooting a wedding. There are always formals, and that can range from the bride and groom to an entire family of 20 people. You're going to need to know how to pose the bride and groom, the bridal party, the groomsmen, the bride and her family, the groom and his family, you get my drift? Knowing how to pose a group of 15 people is HUGE and when you have 15 people just staring at you and saying "WHAT DO YOU WANT US TO DO!>>!>!?!?" you better know the answer. Because they will stand there like a deer in headlights that have never been in a photograph before. YOU are directing them where to go. Also know beforehand what specific pictures they want, know who everyone is (moms/dads/grandmas/etc) and make a list. It'll make it easier on everyone to just run down the list to ensure you got everything and everyone important. Nothing is worse than a bride 6 months down the road being like "WHY ISNT UNCLE JIMMY IN THESE PICTURES, HE RAISED ME, BLAH BLAH" when you had no idea this guy was such a big deal.
Go to the location before the wedding. Try and go there a day or two before the wedding at the time it will take place. You need to get a feel of how the lighting is going to be at that time of day. Also, you will be able to scout places to bring the couple/families when it comes time for formals. Nothing is better than a photographer in control and can just bang out those formals real quick, but also make them awesome. Knowing your surroundings and how the light acts at that time of day is how you make them awesome. The family will also appreciate how efficient you are, because they all wanna start partying at the reception!
If there's free alcohol at the reception, don't get drunk.
Also, on the same note, don't go in there expecting to eat a meal at the reception. You might be there for 8+ hours and some places don't offer a 'vendors meal'. And if they do, it's usually shit. So prepare. Bring a clif bar or something.
Basically, just prepare yourself like you are going into war. Be ready for any situation because the clients will look to you to make a lot of hard decisions. And if you aren't able to and their day is going to shit, you will be the first one they blame. I would post more but it's early in the morning so if you have any other questions, just let me know.