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When the Herbs Come Around:
A Look Inside the Logistics of Marijuana Legalization in America
AP US History
April 6th, 2007
Patricia Tabram is a 65 year-old grandmother of two and resides in Northumberland. Although she doesn’t smoke cannabis, she often uses it in her cooking to relieve the arthritis, back pain, and depression she suffers from daily. Her specialty dish is ‘cannabis chicken pie’, and many times a week, other elderly citizens will come dine with her to alleviate the pain that comes with being a senior citizen. Patricia soon starting growing her own cannabis, and distributing it to the other elderly citizens who she dined with. In 2003, six police officers came to her door, and said “We believe you have drugs on the premise, can we come in?” She very nicely responded, “What kind of drugs? Cocaine? Heroin?” When the officer mentioned cannabis, she said “Yes, I have cannabis” and then proceeded to get arrested for dealing cannabis to her other elderly friends. Although she got a suspended jail term, she continues to use cannabis in her cooking on a daily basis, noting that cannabis is the only prescription that can lessen her pain, and she says it is ‘worth its weight in gold’ for its healing powers1.
Patricia, referred to as the ‘Cannabis Granny’, simply uses cannabis, as she would any other herb, like curry, to help ease that pain that prescription pills have failed to. The arrests made on Patricia are a waste of time for everyone involved. Now, Patricia, otherwise a law-abiding citizen, has to deal with getting arrested, finding a lawyer, and going to court. The whole process is a waste of time for the police officer, who now spends hours of time processing the paper work for the arrest, as well as a waste of money for taxpayers. Citizens who use cannabis whether medicinally or recreationally, should not be treated as criminals.
The current war on marijuana is ineffective, distorted to the public, and based on phony information. If marijuana were legalized and controlled by the government, the United States could be bringing in massive amounts of money from the sale and cultivation of marijuana. The average American annual marijuana crop brings in four to twenty-five billion dollars, while the largest legal crop, corn, annually earns nineteen billion dollars2. New research also proves that marijuana isn’t as harmful as once believed, and it also holds medicinal benefits. Marijuana also has industrial applications and the fiber from the cannabis plant, hemp, is a very strong crop and could help the American economy. It is time to do away with the seventy year old laws that were established with little thought, planning, and research. The decriminalization of marijuana in all aspects and the development of a legally controlled marijuana market would be beneficial to the country.
Marijuana has been cultivated and used dating back thousands of years. In China,it was noted for its therapeutic use in the first known Chinese pharmacopoeia, (a book containing a list of medicinal drugs, and their descriptions of preparation and use.) Pen Ts'ao. It was also called a superior ‘herb’ by the Emperor Shen-Nung who was said to have authored the book. In Egypt, around 2000 B.C. it was said to soothe sore eyes. In Rome, arguably the greatest empire of all, Emperor Nero's surgeon, Dioscorides, praises cannabis for making the stoutest cords and for its medicinal properties. In 1621, the medical book, The Anatomy of Melancholy by English clergyman Robert Burton, cannabis is said to end depression in humans. Marijuana has been a part of almost every society for an innumerable amount of time.3
In America, the first hemp plant was grown by English colonists in 1611 near Virginia4. (Note: Hemp and Marijuana come from the same plant, Cannabis Sativa, but Hemp contains very low amounts of THC)5 . Ironically enough, the English government mandated that hemp be grown in America because it was used in England for sails, ropes, linens, and paper. Even our country’s first president, George Washington planted and harvested cannabis plants for its fiber as well as medicinal purposes. However, the pilgrims harvested literally tons of hemp without recognizing its property as an intoxicant. The medicinal use of marijuana spread to America from India by a physician W.B. O’Shaughnessy who performed tests on animals with cannabis6. From these tests, he concluded cannabis was safe, and made a solution of cannabis and alcohol, called tincture. This tincture proved as an effective pain reliever for pains in the mouth, as well as being a very good muscle relaxant and used it as a preventative measure for seizures. Doctors in America began to prescribe the tincture of cannabis for many different medical reasons at local pharmacies. In the late 1800’s people began to experiment with the drug as an intoxicant. Around the same time, newspapers started reporting about the secret ‘hashish houses’ where people were smoking cannabis and medical journals began listing cases of “cannabis poisonings”7. Doctors began to realize the danger of cannabis, and as a result, the number of prescriptions for it decreased rapidly. Also, the hypodermic needle was invented at this time, so it wasn’t necessary to wait for the effects of marijuana to kick in before doctors could start surgeries. Interest in marijuana was not ‘burnt out’ by any means.
As thousands of new immigrants came to the United States in the early 1920’s, marijuana use was revived again. Prices for marijuana doubled in the twenties because of the increasing popularity8. The government noticed the increase use of marijuana among its citizens and put a stop to it. In 1937, during the height of the spread of the evils of marijuana, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act making non-medical use of marijuana illegal. Only a few people testified in the hearing. One of the proponents of the law was Harry Anslinger, commissioner of the newly created Federal Bureau of Narcotics. Anslinger’s testimony was based on unproven reports, inaccurate information, and personal bias. Anslinger personally strongly detested jazz music and the Black musicians behind jazz, and even spent years tracking down the musicians and charging them for breaking marijuana laws9. After hearing from Anslinger, the floor was turned over to James C. Munch, a researcher at Temple University. Munch claimed that he had injected the ingredients associated with cannabis into the brains of three hundred dogs, and two of the dogs died. Munch’s experiment was very questionable because it was never officially published, and no scientists were able to match his results10. The true ingredient, THC, was not even identified in his experiment. William C. Woodward from the American Medical Association was in support of keeping marijuana legal and testified that, “The American Medical Association knows of no evidence that marihuana is a dangerous drug” 11. The debate in the House of Representatives lasted only a few minutes, with little debate at all, and then passed onto the Senate where it passed without debate. It is clear that at the time when the Marihuana Tax Act was passed there was not enough solid evidence; conclusions were based on exaggerated reports and plain ignorance.
There has been much research and scientific studies conducted from 1937, when the Marijuana Tax Act passed, to the present. In 1937, when THC still remained undiscovered, it was believed that marijuana lead to insanity. At the time, Dr. Carl Voegtlin, chief of the Division of Pharmacology of the National Institution of Health, told Harry J. Anslinger, “It is an established fact that prolonged use leads to insanity”12. Anslinger went on further to describe marijuana as “dangerous as a coiled rattlesnake” and he refused to acknowledge any of the medical benefits13. Today, with new research and technology, there is overwhelming evidence that marijuana does in fact hold many medicinal benefits.
Marijuana has been found to reduce nausea and loss of appetite associated with AIDS, help with asthma, alleviate side effects of chemotherapy, help with menstrual cramps, migraines, insomnia, and help relieve many other symptoms of various aliments. In 1999, the Institute of Medicine, part of the National Academy of Sciences, acknowledged the therapeutic values of marijuana. In a report titled Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base by the Institute of Medicine, the institute reported, “The accumulated data indicate a potential therapeutic value for cannabinoid drugs, particularly for symptoms such as pain relief, control of nausea and vomiting, and appetite stimulation”14. Between 1978 and 1996, 36 state’s legislators have passed laws recognizing the therapeutically value of marijuana15. But until marijuana is legalized federally, there is little the states can do. For example, federal officials have threatened to sanction any physician who authorizes the use of marijuana to patients16. Even with the new evidence the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) still regards marijuana as a Schedule 1 drug with no accepted medical use in treatment in the U.S.
However, after new evidence has been surfacing members of the DEA are starting to rethink their position. Francis L. Young, the chief of administrative law judge of the DEA, strongly beliefs that marijuana should be rescheduled, and stated in a report, “[Marijuana] in its natural form is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man”17. Young went on further to say, “It would be unreasonable arbitrary and capricious for the DEA to continue to stand between those sufferers and the benefits of this substance in light of the evidence”18. Despite the support of the chief of administrative law judge, the DEA has refused to reschedule marijuana.
After Young’s report was made public, questions were raised ass to why the DEA is so stubbornly opposed to keeping marijuana illegal. The DEA has given no reason as to why it wont reschedule marijuana other than it is a “dangerous” drug.
California Superior Court Judge James P. Grey has a theory as to why the DEA is so intent on keeping marijuana illegal. Grey argues that the DEA needs to keep marijuana illegal because marijuana is such a big part of the drug war, and without it the DEA would not have a reason to spend the billions of dollars it does every year19. According to Grey, legalizing marijuana would greatly hurt the DEA, and that is why it remains a schedule 1 drug.
No matter what laws or regulations are in place, marijuana is still being used in America. Marijuana is a part of the American culture, and is deeply embedded in modern society. According to sociologist Ned Polsky, “Few… realize that it [drug taking] is a totally pervasive part of beat life, both as an activity and as a topic of conversation. The illegal use of drugs is one of the handful of things that characterizes all”20. Marijuana prohibition in America is a failure, and will never be successful. Marijuana is incredibly popular and according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, in 2002, over 14 million Americans admitted to using marijuana at least one month prior to the survey, and about half of high school seniors admit to at least trying marijuana once21. According to a 1998 federal government survey more than 72 million Americans over the age of twelve had tried marijuana at least once in their life22. Also, ridiculous amounts of money is being spent on the useless prohibition. In 1975, 47.3% of all 12th graders reported using of marijuana. Even though billions of dollars of federal money has been spent on programs like D.A.R.E., the percentage of 12th graders in the Class of 2004 reported using marijuana rose to 49%. Also since the mid 70’s, 86% of 12th graders said getting marijuana was ‘very easy’, and although the laws have become much more strict, that percentage has remained nearly the same23. It is obvious how futile the prohibition of marijuana is in America.
The prohibition of marijuana is very similar to the prohibition of alcohol in 1920-1933. On January 16, 1920 the eighteenth amendment officially made it illegal to import, export, transport, sell or manufacture intoxicating liquor. Prohibition was intended to solve many social problems within America, to reduce crime and corruption and to improve American’s health. However, the prohibition of alcohol had totally opposite and unforeseen consequences. Although the amount of alcohol consumed declined slightly at first, many Americans still drank and found ways around prohibition. Instead of beer and wine, more dangerous bootleg liquor became available to the public. Instead of decreasing crime, the crime right increased drastically and an organized black market was created. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Lincoln C. Andrews commented on the growing crime by saying, "conspiracies are nation wide in extent, in great numbers, organized, well-financed, and cleverly conducted”24. The prohibition only made civil life worse and increased the problems in America. Many parallels can be drawn to the marijuana prohibition, but apparently none of the lessons taught by the alcohol prohibition have been learned.
Prohibition of marijuana is not only ineffective but also adds to the problems within the country. The biggest issue with prohibition is that it has created an organized and vicious black market within the United States. The black market thrives on violence between rival gangs. Illegal drug selling between gangs has a direct correlation to the increase in the homicide rate. In cities like New Haven, the majority of murders are related to drug deals. In fact, in Chicago, drug related murders constitute up to 40 % of all homocides25. In defense to the growing number of murders, more Americans have acquired guns which results in even more violence. The number of Americans with guns has quadrupled between 1950 and 1990.19 A lot of the times the drug dealers are the ones providing the weaponry. Also because marijuana is illegal its price increases. The expensive price could be the reason why users commit crimes. Users commit robbery and other crimes as a means to afford the purchase of marijauana26. The circle of violence just keeps going around and around in ever increasing diameters.
The prohibition of marijuana also adds to the corruption of law-enforcement officers. Similarly to the alcohol prohibition, drug money is used to bribe officers and judges. For example, in the late 1980’s over 80 police officers in Miami were convicted for an array of crimes from robbery to murder, all related to drugs and the black market27. The only way to put a stop to the vicious circle of violence and corruption is to legalize marijuana, and put it under government control. Having the government in charge of distribution and sale of marijuana would definitely decrease drug-related deaths, decrease corruption and would be a strike against the black market itself.
Additionally, marijuana prohibition is not inexpensive and costs American taxpayers billions of dollars each year in arrests, eradication efforts, and education. Prohibition is also costing Americans billions of dollars in missed opportunities that would arise from legalizing marijuana.
According to the U.S. Justice Departments Bureau of Justice Statistics, there have been more than 700,000 arrests every single year since 199628. Of the 700,000 arrests more than 90 % have been for simple possession, not for growing, trafficking, or selling29. All of the arrests come at a great cost and squander both time of the police force, and money of American taxpayers. For example, every arrest takes one or two officers out of the line of duty, when they could be focusing on more important cases. Money is also wasted in brining these cases through the legal system. In 1998, there were over 60,000 marijuana offenders in prison at a cost of over $1.2 billion30. State and local taxpayers spend between $5.3 billion and $7.7 billion dollars annually on arresting and prosecuting individuals for marijuana violations. The federal government spends an additional $4 billion per year on marijuana-related activities31. This is money that could be going towards much better things, like trying to stop the sale and cultivation of much more dangerous drugs. Even though the reported adult use of marijuana has remained nearly the same over the past decade, marijuana related arrests have doubled since 1990. During this time, heroin and cocaine arrests have decreased sharply. Marijuana enforcement is being achieved at the expense of enforcing laws against the possession and trafficking of more dangerous drugs32. Marijuana users are not violent criminals and take part in what many people label a “victimless activity”. Just because they choose to smoke marijuana instead of smoking tobacco, or drinking alcohol they should not be labeled as criminals. Besides their marijuana use, they are responsible citizens, and American’s valuable tax dollars should be going to catching more harmful criminals.
Eradication of marijuana within the United States is also very costly. Millions of dollars have been put forth to support such eradication efforts as the Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program which was established in 197933. The Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program uses military aircrafts, infrared sensors, and satellites to eradicate all the wild growing marijuana in the United States, and to try to catch marijuana growers. Purging the country of marijuana comes at a great cost, and when the marijuana is seized billions of dollars that could be going towards the U.S. government is destroyed.
Furthermore, with more and more studies being done on marijuana usage, more conclusions have been made that marijuana is very safe compared to other hard drugs, and even alcohol. Previous facts thrown around by the government to scare people away from marijuana have been proven wrong. It was commonly believed that there are basic cognitive differences between those who smoke marijuana and those who don’t, however this ‘fact’ couldn’t be more wrong. Recently, a study at Harvard Medical School tested to see how accurate this fact was. The scientists gathered 22 long term marijuana smokers, with an average of 20,100 episodes of smoking, and 26 non-smokers. The scientists performed magnetic resonance imaging on the brains of the users and non-users, to see if there were any differences, and the study showed that there was no ‘significant change’ in the brain images of the smokers and non-smokers. In addition, many advertisements have been shown on television to try to convey the danger of drugs, many of which are false.
One that comes to mind is the commercial where there are a couple guys in a car filled with smoke, and they go to a drive-thru fast food place to get some food. After picking up their food, they hit a little girl crossing the street on her bike. This commercial is insinuating that the cause of the accident was marijuana. In actuality, marijuana has little to no effect on driving ability. The most recent marijuana-driving study was conducted at the Institute for Human Pharmacology in the Netherlands. After samples of THC were given to test-drivers, their performance was evaluated. The marijuana use had a insignificant effect on the drivers, and their driving ability remained practically the same. Researchers compared marijuana use to a BAC (Blood Alcohol Content) of .04 and found that alcohol produced much worse driving ability, when marijuana produced none34. The main difference between driving under the influence of alcohol compared to driving under the influence of marijuana is that drivers who drink alcohol tend to take more risks. Marijuana doesn’t improve driving ability; however marijuana users that drive are more aware of their impairment and compensate for it.
Also, anti-Marijuana activists, consider marijuana to be dangerous due to the fact that it is a ‘gateway drug’ and its use will lead to other harder drugs. Marijuana is not a “gateway” drug by itself and contains no physical ingredients that make it a “gateway drug”, but because of its legal status, it can introduce the user to the black market where other harder drugs can be easily obtained. If marijuana were to be legalized and put under government control, then it would be taken out of the black market. Inevitable purchasers of marijuana would therefore not have to turn to the black market for purchases and be subsequently exposed to cocaine or heroine. No matter what legislation is passed, people are still going to use marijuana; but putting it under federal control would be safer to the user, and reduce the risk of marijuana users turning to harder, more potentially dangerous drugs. Much can be learned through the observation of the Netherlands, where it is legal to possess as much as 30 grams of marijuana. In the Netherlands there has been a complete separation of marijuana and the black market. The separation has been successful because there has been an increase in marijuana use without an increase in cocaine or harder drug use35. The legalization of marijuana in Holland has also given authorities more time and resources to hone in on the harder, more dangerous drugs. Decriminalizing marijuana would be an additional precaution to ensure users don’t fall prey to the black market.
The marijuana plant consists of not only THC but also strong hemp fibers. Hemp is from the plant species Cannabis sativa L, and although it has a similar leaf structure as marijuana it contains less than 1% THC. Cannabis plants have been harvested for hemp for thousands of years throughout the world. Hemp has played a key role in the United States, and even the U.S. constitution was written on hemp paper. When the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed it banned the cultivation of hemp within the United States, and to this date no exceptions have been made.
Hemp’s wide spread economic use, and its environmental advantages make it among the most promising crops in the United States. The plant can be harvested for it fibers, seed, and seed oil. Hemp has thousands of different commercial uses such as paper, glass fiber, plastic, cosmetics, fuel for cars and even for human consumption. The legalization of cultivating hemp would revolutionize the paper industry in the United States. Quality does not have to be sacrificed for hemp paper. In fact, paper made from hemp is stronger and more superior to tree-based paper. Hemp paper is also stronger, lasts longer, and is more environmentally friendly than tree-based paper. In 1994 the American Farm Bureau Federation described the plant as a versatile and strong agricultural crop36. Hemp has countless economic possibilities for the United States, and it would be advantageous to legalize the Cannabis sativa plant for the paper aspect alone.
Not only does hemp hold various commercial uses but is also has many environmental advantageous. First of all, the hemp plant is a natural pesticide, and requires no herbicides or chemicals. Hemp also does not need nearly as much water as cotton, and can reduces weeds. The answer to deforestation can be found in hemp. For every one acre of hemp, four acres of forest can be saved. Hemp is also more environmentally friendly than wood, in that 80 % of unprocessed hemp can be converted to hemp, where as only 43 % of wood can be converted to pulp37. The growing cycle for Cannabis sativa is around a hundred days, and can be put in with a rotation of different crops. Additionally, the fibers found in hemp are whiter, and stay whiter than wood so less bleaching is needed.
Hemp production would provide the United States with a profitable and effective industry. Production would create employment and additional markets for hemp would emerge. In 1998 a report by the United Stated Department of Agriculture explored the potential jobs and earnings of industrial hemp in Kentucky. The department estimated that two processing facilities in Kentucky alone would include 537 full-time jobs, and $12,100,000 in worker earnings38. The estimates are only for Kentucky, but facilities all over the country would have a significant economic impact.
In more than 30 other countries throughout the world, including France, England, and Canada, it is legal to cultivate hemp. The single barrier between the United States and a gigantic economic market with environmental benefits is the old Marijuana Tax Act of 1937. No progress can be made until the laws on marijuana are lifted. However, the Unites States seems to be retrogressing, and the Bush administration even went so far as to try to ban hemp foods and cosmetics39. The fear of hemp and marijuana needs to be abolished and legalization must occur in order to reap the benefits of the potential market, and environmental advantages of hemp.
Nearly 70 years have passed since marijuana first became illegal in the United States. From that time it is glaringly apparent that prohibition has not been successful and has only added to the civil problems within the country. In 70 years, there have also been great strides in the fields of medicine and scientific research proving the medicinal benefits of marijuana. Keeping marijuana illegal costs the nation billions of dollars, and also costs the nation billions of missed dollars in the hypothetical economy marijuana would have. Hemp from the marijuana plant could also revolutionize the American economy and be the answer to environmental problems facing America. Decriminalization and having a controlled market of marijuana overseen by the federal government would undoubtedly be beneficial to the United States of America.
[if !supportLists]1. [endif]H, John. “Stoned in Suburbia”
[if !supportLists]2. [endif]Neelam Mehta, Marijuana Policy Report: Edu: Book Details Black Market, http://www.mpp.org/NM/news_7218.html.
[if !supportLists]3. [endif]Mehling, Randi. Drugs The Straight Facts: Marijuana. 66
[if !supportLists]4. [endif]Ibid. 49
[if !supportLists]5. [endif]Schliechert, Elizabeth. Marijuana: The Drug Library. 48
[if !supportLists]6. [endif]Ibid. 57
[if !supportLists]7. [endif]Ibid. 23
9. Brain S. Julin, Cannabis FAQ
[if !supportLists]10. [endif] William Goodwin, Marijuana (San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 2002), 44.
11. William Goodwin, Marijuana (San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 2002), 46, Quoted in Bonnie and Whitbread, “The Forbidden Fruit and the Tree of Knowledge,” 54.
12. Jill Jonnes, Hep-Cats, Narcs, and Pipe Dreams: A History of America’s Romance with Illegal Drugs (New York, NY: Scribner,1996), 129.
13. Ibid. 93
14. Ed Rosenthal and Steve Kubby, Why Marijuana Should Be Legal (New York, NY: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2003), 54, quoted in Janet E. Joy, Stanley J. Watson Jr., and John A. Benson, Jr., eds.,Marijuana and Medicine:Assesing the Science Base, Institue of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences (1999).
15. The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, Marijuana Decriminalization Reports, http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=4435.
[if !supportLists]16. [endif] Ibid.
[if !supportLists]17. [endif] William Goodwin, Marijuana (San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 2002), 90, Quoted in Judge Francis L. Young, “Marijuana Rescheduling Petition, Docket No. 86-22, Opinion and Recommended Ruling, Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law and Decision of Administrative Law,” www.calyx.net/olsen/MEDICAL/YOUNG/young.html
[if !supportLists]18. [endif] Steven B. Duke and Albert C. Gross, America’s Longest War: Rethinking Our Tragic Crusade Against Drugs (New York, NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1993), 184, Quoted in Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, Marijuana Rescheduling, in Randall, Vol. 2, 445.
[if !supportLists]19. [endif]Goodwin, Marijuana, 91.
20. Jonnes, Hep-Cats, Narcs, and Pipe Dreams, 214.
21. National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIDA InforFacts:Marijuana, http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/marijuana.html
22. Goodwin, Marijuana, 26
23. The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. Marijuana Decriminalization Reports. http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=4435.
24. Mark Thornton, Alcohol Prohibition was a Failure, http://www.druglibrary.org/Schaffer/alcohol/pa-157.html Quoted in U.S. Department of the Treasury, Prohibition Enforcement (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1927), p. 2.
25. Steven B. Duke and Albert C. Gross, America’s Longest War: Rethinking Our Tragic Crusade Against Drugs (New York, NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1993), 110, Quoted in Isable Wilkerson, “Crack Hits Chicago, Along with a Wave of Killing”, New York Times, 24 September 1991.
26. Ronald Bayer and Gerald M. Oppenheimer, Drug Policy: Illecet Drugs in a Free Society (New York, NY: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1993), 232.
27. Steven B. Duke and Albert C. Gross, America’s Longest War: Rethinking Our Tragic Crusade Against Drugs (New York, NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1993), 113, Quoted in Daryl Kelley and Victor Merina, “Cases Reviewed in L.A. in Wake of Suspension,” Los Angeles Times, 3 September 1989.
28. Goodwin, Marijuana, 63.
29. Ibid. 62
30. Ibid. 32
31. The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. Marijuana Decriminalization Reports. http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=4435.
32. Goodwin, Marijuana, 64.
33. Ibid. 68.
34. Zimmer, Marijuna Myths/Marijuana Facts, 124.
35. Drug Policy Alliance, Netherlands, http://www.drugpolicy.org/global/drugpolicyby/westerneurop/thenetherlan/.
36. Goodwin, Marijuana, 16.
37. Earth Island Institute, Hemp: The Hardy Paper Crop, http://www.rethinkpaper.org/content/hemp.cfm.
38. United States Department of Agriculture, Industrial Hemp in the United States: Statue and Market Potential, http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/ages001e/.
39. Ed Rosenthal and Steve Kubby, Why Marijuana Should Be Legal, 47.
Association for Better Living and Education International. History of Marijuana. http://www.narconon.org/druginfo/marijuana_hist.html.
This site gave a great background on the History of Marijuana.
Bayer, Ronald., and Gerald M. Oppenheimer. Drug Policy: Illicit Drugs in a Free Society. New York, NY: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1993.
This book was useful in its idea that perhaps crimes and violence occur because of the increased price in drugs because of their illegal status.
Drug Policy Alliance. Netherlands. http://www.drugpolicy.org/global/drugpolicyby/westerneurop/thenetherlan/.
This website was used to show an example of a country that has decriminalized marijuana. In the Netherlands, small amounts of marijuana are legal, and it is beneficial to the country.
Duke, Steven B., and Albert C. Gross. America’s Longest War: Rethinking Our Tragic Crusade Against Drugs. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1993.
This book was especially useful in describing the negative consequences of the prohibition of marijuana, especially dealing with the violence created by the prohibition and the subsequent corruption.
Earth Island Institute. Hemp: The Hardy Paper Crop. http://www.rethinkpaper.org/content/hemp.cfm.
This website was used to show that advantages that hemp has over paper
Goodwin, William. Marijuana. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 2002.
This book was used for many purposes throughout the paper. I used facts from the book to talk about the arrest rates for marijuana within the United States. This book was also used to briefly talk about hemp, and also to describe the experiments of Munch, and the AMA reaction to the Marijunana Tax Act of 1937.
H, John. “Stoned in Suburbia”
This movie gave me a great sense of how prevalent marijuana use is in today’s society, even among the senior citizens
Jonnes, Jill. Hep-Cats, Narcs, and Pipe Dreams: A History of America’s Romance with Illegal Drugs. New York, NY: Scribner, 1996.
This book was used for several quotes. I used a quote from the sociologist Ned Polsky to further show how marijuana is an everlasting part of American culture. I also used a quote from Dr. Carl Voegtlin to show the negligence at the time the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed.
Julin, Brian S. Cannabis FAQ. http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_faq1.shtml.
This website was used to show the bias Harry Anslinger had in his pursuit against marijuana. Anslinger personally did not like Jazz music, or Jazz musicians, so that added to his inappropriate dislike of marijuana.
Kubby, Steve., and Ed Rosenthal. Why Marijuana Should Be Legal. New York, NY: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2003.
This book was used to describe the alcohol and pharmaceutical companies, and there role in keeping marijuana illegal. This book was also helpful in describing issues with National Security and how it would be safer for the United States to have control and ensure quality marijuana.
Mehling, Randi. Drugs the Straight Facts: Marijuana. Philadelphia, PA:
Chelsea House Publishers, 2003.
This book gave non-biased opinions on marijuana usage. I got a lot of facts from this book.
Mehta, Neelam. Marijuana Policy Report: Edu: Book Details Black Market. http://www.mpp.org/NM/news_7218.html.
This website was used to point out just how much money marijuana brings in compared to a legal crop such as corn.
Morgan, John P. M.D. and Lynn Zimmer, Ph.D.. The Myth Of Marijuana’s Gateway Effect. http://www.pdxnorml.org/gateway.html.
This website was used to disprove the “gateway” theory, and also to show that some of the facts and figures presented by the government don’t have that much relevance and are used to fool the general public.
The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. Marijuana Decriminalization Reports. http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=4435.
This website was used to detail when the first marijuana plants were planted in America, and also to show the number of states which acknowledged the medical benefits of marijuana.
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. Your Government is Lying to You (Again) About Marijuna.
This website gave many ‘facts’ that the government throws around, but with scientific evidence, proved how inaccurate these ‘facts’ actually are.
National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIDA InforFacts:Marijuana, http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/marijuana.html
This website was used to show the popularity of marijuana among Americans, and to further prove the futility of prohibition.
Rand Corporation. RAND Study Casts Doubt on Claims that Marijuana Acts as “Gateway”. http://www.rand.org/news/press.02/gateway.html.
This website was used to provide scientific analysis of the “gateway” theory, and to disprove that marijuana is a gateway drug.
Schliechert, Elizabeth. Marijuana: The Drug Library. Enslow Publishers, Inc. 1993
This book gave a lot of good background and social history of marijuana use.
Thornton, Mark. Alcohol Prohibition was a Failure. http://www.druglibrary.org/Schaffer/alcohol/pa-157.html
This website was used to draw parallels between the prohibition of alcohol and the prohibition of marijuana.
United States Department of Agriculture, Industrial Hemp in the United States: Statue and Market Potential, http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/ages001e/.
This website was used to show a hypothetical economy of marijuana in Kentucky. From the website the projections to show that marijuana would bring in a lot of money, and would also create employment for millions.
Zimmer, Lynn. Marijuana Myths Marijuana Facts. The Lindesmith Center: New York, New York. 1997
This book describes many of the myths and facts associated with marijuana use. A lot of great facts came from this book.