Investigating the effect of caffeine as an ergogenic aide, Yeo et. al. (2005) conducted a study using eight male cyclists, ages 25 ? 27. Each participant was instructed to exercise at maximal oxygen uptake for 120 minutes, on three different occasions. During exercise, participants were given one of three substances containing A) glucose, B) glucose and caffeine, or C) water. Participants that ingested formula A (containing glucose) demonstrated higher carbohydrate oxidation rates than athletes given formula C (containing plain water). However, carbohydrate oxidation rates were the highest in athletes given formula B (containing a mixture of caffeine and glucose). Given that CHO oxidation rates were the highest among participants who consumed formula B, caffeine, when ingested with glucose, increases exogenous CHO oxidation rates (Yeo et. al., 2005). Given that Yeo et. al. Demonstrated a positive relationship between caffeine and CHO oxidation rates, caffeine is a beneficial stimulant during exercise. Further demonstrating the positive relationship of caffeine and exercise is Hulston and Jeukendrup (2008). Using a similar method as Yeo et. al. (2005), the authors examined 10 cyclists for 105 minute sustained periods of cycling, followed by a 45 minute time trial, on three separate occasions. Hulston and Jeukendrup (2008) gave each athlete a 6.4% glucose solution, a 6.4% glucose and caffeine solution, or a placebo to examine which solution increased performance. The authors concluded that the athletes who ingested the glucose and caffeine solution completed the time trial 4.6% faster than athletes who consumed solely glucose, and 9% faster than athletes who consumed water (Hulston and Jeukendrup, 2008). Based on the research of Hulston and Jeukendrup (2008), caffeine is positive stimulant during athletic activity. Expanding on the study of caffeine as an exercise stimulant Hogorvorst et. al. (2008) examined the effects of ingesting a Powerbar, containing caffeine, before and during exercise. Using 20 endurance-trained cyclists, the authors provided power bars containing 100mg of caffeine and 45mg of CHO to certain athletes while others were given a Powerbars containing solely CHO, or a placebo. During a 2.5-hour workout, each athlete was instructed to consume a Powerbar before exercise, 45 minutes into the exercise, and at 115 minutes (Hogorvorst et. al., 2008). Participants who consumed the powerbars containing caffeine were significantly faster than athletes who consumed powerbars containing merely CHO or the placebo (Hogorvorst et. al., 2008). Based on the research of Hogorvorst et. al. (2008) strong evidence suggests the positive effect of caffeine during athletic performance. Given the research conducted by Yeo et. al. (2005), Hulston and Jeukendrup (2008), and Hogorvorst et. al. (2008), there is strong evidence that caffeine has a positive effect on athletic performance. With many freeskiing athletes promoting energy drinks, perhaps they too have been conducting detailed research prior to signing their contracts? After all, in an industry where skiers use athletic capabilities to maintain a standard of living, health and ergogenic aides must be at the forefront of all nutritional based decisions.Jeffery Kiesel: using the majestic powers of a polar bear as an ergogenic aide. J Eichhorst Photo.Josh Bishop: using electrolyte enhanced water as an ergogenic aid. J Eichhorst Photo.
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