Well, lets answer the questions you have now and move on.
Uncompressed HDMI will produce an image directly from the sensor. Now, is this raw? Not entirely, but it can be a 422/444 output and with the right recorder you can capture that. Is it relevant for normal people? No.
422 and 44 are color spaces, they are in relation to how the image creates the color you see. Read this link - http://www.dvxuser.com/articles/colorspace/
Not sure about red and what bpp bpc, but its the normal 12-bit video RAW, which I think there is only one kind.
Most cameras you will buy that are under 20k will be 8 bit. I think maybe p2 is 10 bit? not sure, but you can have high bit rates (200, 400, etc) while being 8 bit. people shit themselves over 10 bit vs 8 bit, but again does it matter for the normal person? no.
This last question is in relation to line of resolution and how a camera creates the 720/1080 image you see. Canon dslrs have 700ish lines of resolution (never an exact number listed really at least on B&H) the gh2 has 900ish lines while the fs100 has about 1000. This relates to sharpness at full screen. Now, the way that images are captured matters alot and im learning more and more about this every day. But, i know canon uses a form of line skipping to get up to 720 and 1080, which they kind of have to do to make it work. I think this happens so that the image is compressed and now some HUGE raw file from the sensor. Every camera does this different, also kind of depends on the effective MPs of the sensor too, the more the harder it is to avoid moire and aliasing. The gh2 and fs100 have higher resolutions, so at 1080p they tend to look sharper than a canon 1080p image. Thats why the gh2 looks so much better at full res, its the lines of resolution that it records. Its awesome.
That all being said, its insanely more complicated than what I just said and I probably said something wrong in there, so others please correct me, just going off the top of my head right now. Feel free to ask anymore questions!