Converting everything to moles makes it a whole lot easier. Basically stoichiometry. If it gives you grams and asks for moles take the grams of the substance and multiply that by (1 mole/(number of grams of that substance on the periodic table). Most of those questions are just looking shit up on the periodic table though. Atomic number is automatically the number of protons. Number of neutrons is mass number - (number of protons + number of electrons). If there's a plus two charge that means that there must be 2 less electrons than there are protons (keep in mind that the number of protons will stay the same.
Just do stoichiometry correctly and you'll be fine in chemistry. It's not that bad once you get the hang of it. always make sure you cancel things out so like:
It gives you grams and tells you to go to moles.
you'll have ((grams given)/1) * (moles/(grams on periodic table of that substance)). By simple algebra the grams cancel out and you're left with moles. Just make sure everything always cancels out. If it tells you to go to atoms or molecules use avagadro's number (6.02x10^23) when you place atoms or molecules in the equation.
Sorry I'd go through them individually for you but I have a lot of shit to get done tonight and don't really have time. If it's not due til later tomorrow or something I'll try to help you more, but I don't have time now. Hope that helped a little.