As others have said, using either Apple's Aperture or Adobe's Lightroom to organize/keyword/edit your shots is typically the best way to go. In my mind Aperture vs. Lightroom is the same argument as Nikon vs. Canon, both have their own pros and cons, but either way you go will be a good choice, if that makes sense?
As far as what to do to your shots while you're editing, that's something that I don't think can be answered by others necessarily. If you intend for something to look really crazy then edit it that way, if you intend for something to look untouched, then go in that direction with your editing. Once you've decided on a program you'd like to use for editing, mess around with everything and just see what happens to your shots.
Personally I used to use Aperture (and loved it), but due to the fact that the majority of magazines I submit shots to are using Lightroom, I made the switch last fall and haven't looked back since. I'll occasionally use Photoshop for specific things, but 98% of the time I do everything in Lightroom.
Enjoy the new hobby :]